Translation: Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic – Workers of all countries, unite! The Ukrainian red army is liberating its people!
Poster Number: PP 257
Category: Civil War
Artist: Artist Unknown — неизвестный художник
Poster Notes: The fight for the Soviet take-over of Ukraine lasted from 1917 until 1921 and ran concurrently with the Russian Civil War.
Poster Type: Lithograph
Printer: I.N. Kushnerev and Company Typolithography Partnership, Moscow
Printer Notes: Russian entrepreneur Ivan Kushnerev founded the Ivan Kushnerev & Company Printing Shop in 1869 in Moscow. Having tried his hand at publishing, Kushnerev turned to printing and opened a small shop “with a dozen workers, one hand press, and a single printing machine.” In 1903, the shop acquired Moscow’s first linotype press. As his business grew he brought-in partners. When Kushnerev died in 1896 his printing company was one of the largest in Imperial Russia.
The Kushnerev shop was nationalized by the Soviets in 1919 and consigned to the Printing Section of the Moscow Economic Council. It was placed under the Poligrafkiniga (Book and Magazine Printing) Trust around 1920 and was re-named the 3rd State Typolithography Workshop. By 1921, it was briefly re-named the 20th State Typolithography Workshop and then, it became the 3rd Krasnii Proletarii Book Printing Plant around the time that its location (on Pimenovskaia Street) was re-named Krasnoproletarskaia (Red Proletarian) Street.
By late 1924 the 3rd Krasnii Proletarii was placed under the management of Gosizdat (State Publishing House). The printer retained the Krasnii Proletarii moniker while its management (via a series of state trusts) varied over the next fifty years.
Publisher: All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Council of Workers, Peasants, Red Army Soldiers and Kazak Deputies, Moscow
Publishing date: c.1919
Publisher Notes: Hotel Metropol in Moscow was nationalized by the Bolsheviks and part of it was used as offices as the Second House of Soviets. Another Moscow hotel, The National, was renamed the First House of Soviets and was also used for offices and dormitory quarters for political leaders.
Technical Information on Poster: Moscow, 2nd House Of Soviets (formerly “Metropol'”), Entrance No. 4, Apartment 15. Phone number 50-98.
Sources: Soviet Posters of the era of the Civil War 1918-1921 by B. S. Butnik-Siverskii (1960), page 315, poster 1819; Russian Revolutionary Posters by V. Polonskii (1925), page 140, poster 228
Catalog Notes: PP 257 Civil War