The artist's birth surname is Ter-Karapetian.
Tsentrizdat was established in 1924 to consolidate East and West publishing divisions into one entity. With a focus on literature, political, scientific and educational information in the national languages of the USSR, it had offices throughout the Soviet republics and autonomous regions. Tsentrizdat was dissolved in 1931 when the USSR centralized its printing and publishing industries.
The International Organization for Aid to the Fighters of the Revolution (Mezhdunarodnaia Organizatsiia Pomoshchi Revoliutsioneram, MOPR) was popularly known as International Red Aid. It was a subsidiary of the Communist International and had offices around the world. In the U.S., MOPR operated under the name International Labor Defense (ILD). The ILD formed in Chicago in 1925 and was associated with the Workers' party. In 1947, the ILD merged with the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties forming the Civil Rights Congress, the legal defense arm of the Communist Party USA.