Mark Ioffe was born Mordukh Ber Solomonovich in a part of the Russian Empire that is today the Republic of Latvia. Minimal information is published on this artist and additional research is pending.
MSNKh (Moscow Council of National Economy) 1st Exemplary Printing was at 71 Piatnitskaia Street in Moscow. Prior to Soviet nationalization, this printer was the Sharapov-Sytin Partnerhip. Ivan Dmitrievich Sytin (1851-1934), the son of a peasant, opened a small lithographic shop in Moscow with a single press and developed it into the largest private printing company in Tsarist Russia by the start of the 20th century. The Bolsheviks nationalized Sytin’s shop in Moscow (at Valovaia and Piatnitskaia streets) around 1918, close to the time they commandeered the Royal (state) Print Yard. The Yard was transformed into Gosizdat, the State Publishing House. In 1921, the 1st State Typo-lithography became the “1st Exemplary Workshop” and a Gosizdat contract printer. After World War II, the 1st Exemplary was named for A. A. Zhdanov (a deceased Soviet leader) and was placed in the Glavpoligrafizdat Trust (Main Administration for Matters of Polygraphic Industry Publishing and Book Selling). The trust was formed in 1949 to oversee printing, publishing and the retail book trade in the USSR.