The Tsar, Priest and Rich Man [are] on the Shoulders of Working People. Three lords of the world are riding on the shoulders of workers and peasants over barren, ruined earth, over bones and bodies of dead peasants. These three lords are the Tsar, the Priest and the greedy, insatiable, rich Capitalist. [Partial translation]

Poster Number: PP 742
Category: Civil War
Poster Notes: [At top] "Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic; Workers Of All Countries, Unite!"; This poster was also issued with the title, "Vengeance on the Tsar (Warsaw)".
Media Size: 46x32
Poster Type: Lithograph
Publishing Date: c.1918
Catalog Notes: PP 742 Civil War
Artist: Apsit, Aleksandr Petrovich (Apsītis, Aleksandrs) — Апситис, Александр Петрович

Alexandr Petrovich Apsit grew up amidst dire poverty and yet he received free instruction under the tutelage of the Saint-Petersburg painter, Lev Dmitriev-Kavkazskii.  By 1902, Apsit was noticed by the popular journals, including Rodina [Motherland], Zvezda [Star], and Niva, for which he produced sketches. He also illustrated the publications of writings by A.M. Gorkii, N.S. Leskov, and A.P. Chekhov, as well as those by D. Bedny, I.S. Nikritin, and M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin. Through these commissions he gained a stellar reputation, becoming one of the best-paid illustrators in the city.

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Printer: 2nd State Typography Lithography Workshop, Moscow — 2-я Государственная Типография, Москва

The 2nd State Typography Lithography Workshop was located in Moscow at 9 Trekhprudnyi Lane near the intersection of Mamonovskii Lane. The workshop occupied the former A.A. Levinson Partnership. Levenson's Moscow printing firm dates to 1887 when Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Levenson developed a plant with a speed press. His operation expanded to 450 workers by 1913 and at one point, his firm operated six of Moscow's eighteen high-speed presses. During World War I, Levinson's operation was subjugated under the Zemgorom (Chief Army Supply Committee of the All-Russian Union of Cities and Towns) for use during the war. During the Russian Revolution in 1917, the printing firm was nationalized. It was initially named the 2nd State Typography [Lithography] Workshop and then it was transferred (around 1920) to the MSNKh as the 16th State Printing Workshop.

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Publisher: VTsIK (All-Russian Central Executive Committee), Moscow — ВЦИК (Всероссийский Центральный Исполнительный Комитет), Москва

VTsIK (Vserossiyskii Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet ) was the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers', Peasants', Red Army and Cossack Deputies. It was the highest legislative and administrative body of government in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from 1917 until 1936. Its Executive Committee was elected at the first All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) in June 1917. When the Soviet Union was formed in 1922, VTsIK became the second-highest governing body in the federal-republic of the RSFSR. Following the reformation of the Soviet Constitution in 1936, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR replaced VTsIK.

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