Why did the Civil War Start? [In the circle] From the first days of its existence the Soviet Republic has had to stand against the military forces of the White Army. [Partial translation]

Poster Number: PP 749
Category: Civil War
Poster Notes: The pistols illustrated are the Nagant M1895 series used by the Imperial Army and Soviet Red Army.

[On three arrows]
Capitalists, landlords, generals
[Left arrow]
Capitalists, landlords and generals could not stand against the existing power of workers and peasants who took away land, plants and factories from them.
[Right arrow]
Capitalists, landlords and generals started to create a military force from the Tsar’s officers, Kazaks and kulaks in order to seize power from the Soviets.

Media Size: 44x32
Poster Type: Lithograph
Publishing Date: c.1925
Editorial Information: [On the poster margin] "This series is recommended by Agitpropotdel of the Political Directorate of RKKA for political education, Lenin corners, military corners, workers’ clubs and houses of literacy."
Technical Information on Poster: Publication No. 17765
Glavlit Directory Number: 67961
Catalog Notes: PP 749 Civil War b
Artist: Artist Unknown — неизвестный художник

The artist's name on the poster is not indicated. By assigning Artist Unknown to a poster it also could mean the artist used a chop mark whereby no signature is seen thus rendering the artist's identity anonymous.

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Printer: Krasnii Proletarii (Red Proletarian), Moscow —

The Krasnii Proletarii Workshop (A.K.A. 3rd Krasnii Proletarii Typography Workshop) was located at 16 Krasnoproletarskaia Street in Moscow. Around 1920 the printing workshop was placed under the management of the Poligrafkniga (Book and Magazine Printing) Trust. Historically, this printer was first under the ownership of the Russian entrepreneur Ivan Kushnerev who founded the Ivan Kushnerev & Company Printing Shop in 1869 in Moscow. When Kushnerev died in 1896 his company was one of the largest printers in Imperial Russia. The Kushnerev shop was nationalized by the Soviets in 1919 and consigned to the Printing Section of the Moscow Economic Council. It was then re-named the 3rd State Typolithography Workshop and, for a brief period, it was the 20th State Typolithography Workshop. It became the 3rd Krasnii Proletarii Book Printing Plant when its location (on Pimenovskaia Street) was re-named Krasnoproletarskaia (Red Proletarian) Street. The workshop retained the Krasnii Proletarii moniker while its management (via a series of state trusts) varied over the next fifty years.

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Publisher: State Publishing House — Государственный издательство

The State Publishing House had its origins in Imperial Russia as the Royal Print Yard in St. Petersburg. The Soviets nationalized the print yard in 1917 and requisitioned its presses. From requisitioning emerged the Publishing House of the Petrograd Soviet, formed in the winter of 1917 by the Literary and Publishing Department of People's Commissariat for Education. As the Red Army controlled more provinces and cities in former Imperial Russia, the State Publishing House developed offices outside St. Petersburg. For example in May 1919, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee created the State Publishing House of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) in Moscow. Publishing offices were later created elsewhere around Soviet Russia as well as in outlying republics.

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