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3rd State Typolithography Workshop, Moscow (formerly Kushnerev)

3-я государственная типо-литография, Москва

Russian entrepreneur Ivan Nikolaievich Kushnerev founded the Kushnerev & Company Printing Shop in 1869 in Moscow. Having tried his hand at publishing, Kushnerev turned to printing. He opened a small shop “with a dozen workers, one hand press, and a single printing machine.” In 1903 his shop acquired Moscow’s first linotype press. As business grew he brought-in partners and, when Kushnerev died in 1896, his printing firm was one of the largest in Imperial Russia. Kushnerev & Company was nationalized by the Soviets in 1919 and consigned to the Printing Section of the Moscow Economic Council (MSNKh).

It was placed under the Poligrafkiniga (Book and Magazine Printing) Trust around 1920 and named the 3rd State Typolithography Workshop. By 1921, the printer was named the 20th State Typolithography Workshop and, it later became the 3rd Krasnii Proletarii Book Printing Plant when its location (on Pimenovskaia Street) was re-named Krasnoproletarskaia (Red Proletarian Street). By late 1924, the 3rd Krasnii Proletarii Book Printing Plant was under the management of Gosizdat (State Publishing House).

Sources & Citations

Koenker, D. (2005). Republic of labor: Russian printers and Soviet socialism, 1918-1930. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ruud, C. A. (1990). Russian entrepreneur: Publisher Ivan Sytin of Moscow, 1851-1934. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Bonnell, V. E. (1999). Iconography of power: Soviet political posters under Lenin and Stalin. Berkeley: University of California Press.