MSNKh 16th State Publishing Typography Workshop, Moscow
The MSNKh (Moscow Council of National Economy) 16th State Publishing Typography Workshop was the A.A. Levenson Partnership before it was nationalized by the Soviets. This printer's history dates to 1887 in Moscow when Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Levenson developed a printing plant with a speed press. Levenson's operations expanded to 450 workers by 1913. During World War I, his plant was subjugated by the Zemgorom (Chief Army Supply Committee of the All-Russian Union of Cities and Towns) for use as a printer for the military during the war. With onset of the Russian Revolution in 1917, Levenson's firm was nationalized and transferred (around 1920) to the MSNKh whereby it was re-named the 16th State Printing Workshop and placed under Mospechat’, a state-owned printing trust. At a later date, the workshop was placed under the Mospoligraf Trust.