MSNKh 16th State Publishing Typography Workshop, Moscow (formerly Levinson)
The MSNKh (Moscow Council of National Economy) 16th State Publishing Typography Workshop was the A.A. Levenson Partnership before it was nationalized by the Soviets. Located in Moscow at 9 Trekhprudnyi Lane at the intersection of Mamonovskii Lane, Levenson's printing firm dates to 1887 when Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Levenson developed a plant with a speed press. His operation expanded to 450 workers by 1913 and at one point, his firm operated six of Moscow's eighteen high-speed presses. During World War I, Levinson's operation was subjugated under the Zemgorom (Chief Army Supply Committee of the All-Russian Union of Cities and Towns) for use during the war. During the Russian Revolution in 1917, the printing firm was nationalized. It was initially named the 2nd State Typography Lithography Workshop and then it was transferred (around 1920) to the MSNKh as the 16th State Printing Workshop. It placed under Mospechat’, a state-owned printing trust and at a later date, it was placed under the Mospoligraf Trust.
Sources & Citations
Balina, M.; Ushakin, S. (2021). The pedagogy of images: Depicting communism for children. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (factory school of the 16th Mospoligraf Printing House)
Koenker, D. (2005). Republic of labor: Russian printers and Soviet socialism, 1918-1930. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Millar, J. R. (2004). Encyclopedia of Russian history. New York: Macmillan Reference.
Steinberg, M. D. (1992). Moral communities: The culture of class relations in the Russian printing industry, 1867-1907. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ruud, C. A. (1990). Russian entrepreneur: Publisher Ivan Sytin of Moscow, 1851-1934. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.