Union of Communes (SKSO) of the Northern Region
The Union of Communes of the Northern Region (SKSO) was a political zone encompassing Petrograd, Novgorod, Pskov, Olonets, Arkhangel’sk, and the provinces of Vologda, Severodvinsk and Cherepovets along with Severnaia Oblast and Severnaia Commune. SKSO was based on an association of Soviets (local councils) that existed from April 1918 until February 1919. It was formed in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) at the First Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region-- held April 26–29, 1918. The congress elected a central executive committee and it confirmed an executive body (the Council of Commissars of the Northern Commune) based on departments existent in the Petrograd Soviet. While political differences in the region helped to erode the Union of Communes, its key dissolution occurred when the central government was relocated from Petrograd to Moscow. On February 24, 1919, the 3rd Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region abolished the Northern Region as a political zone.
Sources & Citations
Jackson, T. N.; Nielsen, J. P. (2005). Russia-Norway: Physical and symbolic borders. Moscow: Languages of slavonic cultures. Moscow: Languages of slavonic cultures. (section on Severnaia Oblast)
Koenker, D. P., Rosenberg, W. G., & Suny, R. G. (1989). Party, state, and society in the Russian Civil War: Explorations in social history. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. (section on Union of Communes)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). New York: Macmillan. (entry on "Northern Commune")