Mikhail Mikhailovich Cheremnykh is considered a master of Soviet satirical graphics. Born in Siberia, he relocated to Moscow in 1911 to study painting where he subsequently enrolled in MUZhViZ (Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture). By 1919 he established the ROSTA studio (Russian Telegraph Agency) in Moscow and served as its artistic director until 1922, when he co-founded the satirical magazine Krokodil[Crocodile]. From 1939 to 1941 he worked as a book illustrator and as a set designer for the Leningrad Academic Maly Opera Theater and in Minsk at the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic State Theater of Opera and Ballet. When the Second World War erupted in 1941, he organized the Moscow TASS studio (Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union) designing its first poster and contributing to forty more works throughout its history. In 1942 he was awarded the Stalin Prize and in 1952, he was bestowed the title of People’s Artist of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
Known by its acronym VTsIK (Vserossiyskii Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet), the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers', Peasants', Red Army and Cossack Deputies was the highest legislative, administrative and amending body of government in the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) from 1917 until 1936. The initial Executive Committee was elected during the first All-Russian Congress of Soviets held in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) in June 1917. In late 1922, the Soviet Union was formed and it was comprised of the RSFSR along with three other Soviet republics. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee then became the second-highest level (federal-republic) governing body. Following a reformation of the Soviet Constitution in 1936, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR replaced VTsIK.