The Third Year is Decisive. Every factory, every plant, fight for the third decisive year

Poster Number: PP 902
Category: Economy
Poster Notes: Original work by the "Artistic Workshop Leningrad” Kh.M., “Khudozhestvennye Masterskie” (Artist Studios).
Media Size: 38.5x27
Poster Type: Lithograph and Offset
Publishing Date: 1930
Technical Information on Poster: Izogiz No. 242 P 36 Leningrad; Leningrad Regional Literature No. 701 B2; Price 35 kopeks; [Printed at] 3 Mir Street
Catalog Notes: PP 902 Economy b
Artist: Artist Studios (Kh.M.) — Художественные Мастерские (ХМ)

Kh.M. is the abbreviation for the State Free Artists' Studios (Khudozhestvenye Masterskie), a poster arts cooperative of Izogiz publishers. In 1930, Kh.M studios existed only in Moscow and Leningrad and it was turning out propaganda for the First Five-Year Plan and for the efforts of collectivization. The earliest poster works created by the cooperative thus reflect these two themes. 

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Printer: State Lithography Workshop named for M. Tomskii, Leningrad — Государственная литография им. М. Томского, Ленинград

The State Lithography Workshop named for M. Tomskii was located at Kronverkskaia and Mir Streets in Leningrad (Petrograd). The workshop was named in honor of Mikhail Pavlovich Tomskii (1880-1936), head of the Soviet trade union and the head of the State Publishing House. Historically, the large printing operation was founded in 1881 by Theodore Kibbel (Fedor Fyodorovich Kibbel). Shortly after the printer was nationalized by the Soviets, it became the 1st State Lithography Workshop, and in 1924 it was named in honor of Tomskii. Thereafter, it underwent a variety of name changes while being controlled by state-run printing trusts.

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Publisher: IzoGiz (State Publishing House of Fine Art), Moscow-Leningrad — Изогиз (Государственное издательство изобразительного искусства), Москва-Ленинград

The history of IzoGiz begins with the formation of Ogiz, the Association of the State Book and Magazine Publishers. In 1930, the Sovnarkom of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic established Ogiz to centralize publishing under a monopoly in order to eliminate duplication of printed material, to streamline and control publishing production and its output, and to create a base for marketing books, training and technical manuals. In 1931, the Central Committee of the USSR ordered certain publications be separated from Ogiz. The separation principally affected technical manuals and propaganda material issued by the publisher. For example, posters, art magazines and artistic books were placed under Izogiz (Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo), the fine arts section of Ogiz. In 1963, Izogiz was merged with the publishing house, "Soviet Artist" (Sovetskii khudozhnik).

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