3rd Krasnii Proletarii (Red Proletarian) Typography Workshop of Soiuzpoligrafprom, Moscow
The Krasnii Proletarii Workshop originated under the ownership of Ivan Kushnerev, a Russian entrepreneur who founded the Kushnerev & Company Printing Shop in 1869 in Moscow. When Kushnerev died in 1896, his printing operation was one of the largest in Imperial Russia. In 1919, the printer was nationalized by the Soviets and consigned to the Printing Section of the Moscow Economic Council (MSNKh).) It later became the 3rd Krasnii Proletarii Book Printing Plant when its location (at 16 Pimenovskaia Street) was re-named Krasnoproletarskaia (Red Proletarian) Street. The printer retained the Krasnii Proletarii moniker over the following decades even though its management varied under a series of state-owned trusts. In the early 1950s, the printer was under the state trust of Soiuzpoligrafprom (All-Union Association of Printing Enterprises).
Petrova, E. (2020). Pamiatniki konstruktivizma v Rossii. Katalog-putevoditel'. Moskva: Institut Naslediya (P. 25, Krasnii Proletarii Workshop building)
Koenker, D. (2005). Republic of labor: Russian printers and Soviet socialism, 1918-1930. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (PP. 31, 338, Ivan Kushnerev history)
Bonnell, V.E. (1997). Iconography of power: Soviet political posters under Lenin and Stalin. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Steinberg, M. D. (1992). Moral communities: The culture of class relations in the Russian printing industry, 1867-1907. Berkeley: University of California Press. (General history of Ivan Kushnerev firm)
Ruud, C. A. (1990). Russian entrepreneur: Publisher Ivan Sytin of Moscow: 1851-1934. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. (Ivan Kushnerev and Ivan Sytin relationship)
Butnik-Siverskii, B. S. (1960). Sovetskii plakat epokhi grazhdanskoi voiny 1918-1921. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Vsesoiuznoi Knizhnoi Palaty (PP. 325, 530; Ivan Kushnerev and Moscow Economic Council printers cited)